Planirana zastarjelost

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Planirana zastarjelost

Postaj by Gost on sub lis 18, 2014 3:35 pm

Planirana zastarjelost ili ugrađena zastarjelost u industrijskom dizajnu je politika namjernog planiranja odnosno dizajniranja dobara ograničena uporabna života, radi toga da bi ta dobra postala zastarjela ili nefunkcionalna nakon određenog vremena. Planirana zastarjelost nosi moguće dobrobiti za proizvođača jer da bi mogao i dalje rabiti proizvod, potrošač je prisiljen opet kupiti, bilo od istog proizvođača (zamjenski dio ili noviji model) ili od konkurenata koji se također mogu osloniti na planiranu zastarjelost.

U nekim slučajima se rabi namjerna deprekacija starijih inačica tehnologije radi smanjenja troškova podrške, posebice u softverskoj industriji. Iako bi se ovo moglo smatrati planiranom zastarjelošću, razlikuje se od klasična oblika po tome što je potrošač obično svjestan ograničenosti vijeka podrške proizvodu, jer je to navedeno u ugovoru o licenciji.
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dugorocno gledano planirana zastarjelost ne donosi dobrobit nikome a ponajmanje planeti Zemlji. udavit cemo se u vlastitom smecu.

nije ni cudo da stroj rikne taman dva dana poslije isteka garancije.

evo kako je sve pocelo:

Phoebus cartel

The Phoebus cartel was a cartel of, among others, Osram, Philips, and General Electric from December 23, 1924 until 1939 that existed to control the manufacture and sale of light bulbs.

The cartel is an important step in the history of the global economy because it engaged in large-scale planned obsolescence. It reduced competition in the light bulb industry for almost twenty years, and has been accused of preventing technological advances that would have produced longer-lasting light bulbs. Phoebus was a Swiss corporation named "Phoebus S.A. Compagnie Industrielle pour le Développement de l'Éclairage".

Purpose

The cartel was a convenient way to lower costs and worked to standardise the life expectancy of light bulbs at 1000 hours, while at the same time raising prices without fear of competition. Members' bulbs were regularly tested and fines were levied for bulbs that lasted more than 1000 hours. A 1929 table lists exactly how many Swiss francs had to be paid, depending on the exceeding hours of lifetime. This was not public knowledge at the time, and the cartel could point to standardization of light bulbs as an alternative rationale for the organization.

The cartel claimed that 1000 hours was a reasonable optimum life expectancy for most bulbs, and that a longer lifetime could be obtained only at the expense of efficiency, since progressively more heat and less light is obtained, resulting in wasted electricity.

The Phoebus Cartel divided the world’s lamp markets into three categories:

home territories, the home country of individual manufacturers
British overseas territories, under control of Associated Electrical Industries, Osram, Philips, and Tungsram
common territory, the rest of the world

Early bulbs had a life of up to 2500 hours, but in 1924 a cartel agreed to limit life to 1000 hours. When this was exposed, the limitation was banned in 1953.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planned_obsolescence

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